Sep 022013
 
Areas of Welding EngineeringTerms and designations in connection with metal welding processes

Back-step welding - Type of welding in which short pieces of the seam are welded against the main direction of welding in such a manner that the end of a piece of seam overlaps the beginning of the preceding one.
Basic material - Material which the work piece to be welded consists of (coatings are not taken into account).
Build-up welding - Plating created by welding. 
Dilution - Inevitable absorbing of basic material, filler metal or material from already welded beads or layers in the welding zone. 
Dissimilar materials - Materials that are substantially different in respect of composition or suitability for welding.
Double-sided welding - Welding during which the welding seam is generated on both sides of the work piece.
Filler material - Material of the filler metal. 
Fusion line - Line between material melted during welding and remaining solid material. 
Heat affected zone (HAZ) - Area of non-liquefied basic material that has sustained thermal structural alterations by the energy input during welding. 

Interpass temperature (Ti) - Temperature in a multi-layer welding process and the adjoining basic material immediately before welding of the next layer.
Note:  It is normally indicated as maximum value (see ISO 13916).

Main time of welding - Time during which the welding process progresses.
Melting loss - Difference between higher content of alloy of filler metal before welding and lower content of pure weld metal.
Multi-run welding - Welding during which the welding seam or the coating is generated in more than two layers.
Note: The designation can also be given in accordance with the number of layers (e.g. three-layer welding).

One-sided welding - Welding during which the welding seam is generated on one side of the work piece.

Pickup - Difference between lower content of alloys of the filler metal before welding and the higher content of the pure weld metal.
Preheating temperature (Tp) - Temperature of the work piece in the welding zone immediately prior to the beginning of the welding process.
Note: It is normally indicated as minimum value and is usually identical to the minimum interpass temperature.

Pure weld metal - Filler metal solidified after welding. Elements can also originate from auxiliary materials used for welding purposes. 

Run-off plate - Metal piece (possibly made of other suitable material) that is placed behind the end of the welding seam in such a manner that the full diameter of the weld metal is available to the end of the seam (and thus end craters are avoided).
Run-on plate - Metal piece (possibly made of other suitable material) that is placed before the beginning of the welding seam in such a manner that the full diameter of the weld metal is achieved
Root protection - Welding auxiliary material (e.g. forming gas) in order to prevent any oxidation of the underside of the seam and to decrease the hazard of falling through.

Sequence of welding beads - Sequence in which the beads of a welding seam and/or an applied layer is welded.
Similar materials - Materials that are not substantially different in respect of their chemical composition. 
Single-run welding - Welding during which welding seam or coating are produced in one layer.
Note: The welding can consist of one or more beads.

Tack welding - Fixing of work pieces and/or assembly groups to be joined in the intended position relative to one another by spot welds or short seams
Torch angle - Angle between centre line of welding torch and a reference plane on the work piece, projected into a level vertical to the welding direction
Two-pass welding - Welding during which the welding seam or the coating is generated in two layers.

Weld joint - The weld joint is the area in which the parts are connected to each other by welding. The type of weld joint is determined by the constructional arrangement of the parts to each other.
Weld metal - Material solidified after welding and consisting of basic material or filler metal and basic material. Elements can also originate from coatings and/or other auxiliary materials. 
Weld pool - Material in the welding zone liquefied by heat or energy introduced during welding.
Weld pool backing - Auxiliary means made of suitable material to keep the weld pool from falling through during welding; it can also be used to form root protection.
Weldability - Weldability is a material property. It is also influenced by production and to a minor extent by construction.
Welding in two-run technique - Welding during which the welding seam on both sides of the work piece is generated from one position each that consists of only one bead.
Welding on both sides simultaneously - Welding during which the welding seam is generated by simultaneous welding on both sides of the work piece. 
Welding process - Procedure of welding.
Welding seam - Area of welded connection in which the work piece or work pieces were united at the weld joint. 
Welding speed - Speed with which the welding process progresses in the direction of welding. 
Welding zone - Locally limited area in which the material is liquefied during welding resp. in which the bonding is effected. 

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