Processes During Heating and Cooling

Processes During Heating and Cooling

As T = 0 K, the heat capacity approaches zero, thus, it is assumed that the atoms do not oscillate at their lattice points. By means of supplying heat, the atoms behave as oscillator and start to vibrate with certain frequencies around their lattice sites. With increasing temperature and therefore increasing oscillation of the atoms [...]

Pig Iron and Crude Steel Production

Pig Iron and Crude Steel Production

In nature iron never occurs as pure material but only as a compound. These are mainly iron-oxydes which are inter-spersed with mineralic constituents called the gangue. The mixture of iron-oxydes and gangue is called iron ore. The main task of metallurgical engineering is the seperation of the iron-oxydes from gangue and on the other hand, [...]

Built-up of the Elements - Structure and properties of pure metals

Built-up of the Elements – Structure and properties of pure metals

The essential atomic structure consists of the nucleus together with the protons (positively charged) and the neutrons (electrically neutral) as well as the electrons (negatively charged). 1836 electrons together form the matter of a proton or a neutron, respectively, i.e. almost the whole matter of an atom is concentrated in the nucleus. Using the quantum [...]

Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagram

Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagram

A Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) diagram describes the decomposition of the austenite (after prior heating) and the structure generated by this. In order to set up a TTT diagram for continuous cooling rod-shaped test pieces are heated to austenitising temperature in a dilatometer. They are kept at this temperature for a certain time and are then cooled [...]